"Blessings upon your noble house."
- Common Aukarian Greeting
|Ruler||Speaker of the Senate, Selas Feshar|
|Demographics||75% Human, 10% Magrakian, 5% Hyttar, 3% Saridian, 5% Other|
|Languages||Aukarian 75%, Chaddi 12%, Magrakian 8%, Other 5%|
|National Colors||Gold, Blue and White|
|Year Founded||421 CY|
|Currency||Primarily Aukarian. Some mixed currencies.|
|Natural Resources||Sandstone, dates, cotton, rice, corn, water buffalo, goats|
|Manufactured Goods and Major Exports||Stonework, wicker products, woven rugs, tapestries and other textiles, fish and seafood, cream ale, saris (drink)|
|Government Stability||Very Stable|
|Enemies||Strained relationships with the Trossali Dominion and the Chaddamar Theocracy.|
|Walled||Yes. Stone curtain wall.|
|Technology Level||Middle Ages|
|Other Religion||Chaddamarian, Bromat|
|Terrain||Coastal plains, rolling plains and sparse forest|
The fabulous city of Brulan is one of the oldest and most influential trade centers of Aggradar. Originally Brulan was a small, but well fortified town and a trade point on caravan routes. It strengthened its defenses during the Aukar Tribal Wars and survived them. Vejad founded his utopian society in Brulan and declared it the cradle from which the structure of societal harmony described in his Plenarum would arise. Brulan has grown financially and architecturally ever since. It suffered greatly during the Sorcerer King's reign, but has emerged all the stronger for it. It is now a clean, powerful and fabulously wealthy city. Brulan is a organized city divided up into strict districts, arranged in geometrically aligned streets. This formal organization does not deter from its beauty... Brulan is decorated with sprawling gardens and sculpted grassy terraces. The buildings are well designed and pleasing to the eye. Low stone walls crisscross the city and statues fill every nook and cranny - standing atop buildings, in plazas, at the ends of bridges and looking out over gardens. The unique architecture of the Aukarians gives the impression of a city lovingly crafted. Every lip and ledge, every corner and roof, every door and arch is adorned with decoratively cut stone.
The city of Brulan has been at the center of Aukarian history from the beginning. Brulan was a small fishing village of the Auker tribes, a region of the Kytohan Empire. When the Sundering occurred and the World Storm swept over the lands, the Kytohan Empire fell into ruins. In this north central region, the Aukar tribes were little more than a collection of clans and villages. These tribes fell to warring with each other.
The Aukar Tribal Wars raged for years before a commoner named Vejad gained influence over several tribes. His words carried great wisdom and held power over chieftains. In time, his beliefs swayed the tribes and brought about peace. He chose Brulan as the center of his movement and it was here that he brought the tribes together in peace. Vejad gathered his beliefs and composed a document 415 verses on seven vellum scrolls. These seven scrolls were collectively known as the Vejad Plenarum.
The Vejad Plenarum ushered in an age of peace, reason and prosperous growth. It led to the founding of the first Houses and the great Senate at Brulan. Brulan was at the center of the birth of all that would become Aukarian culture and tradition. It was the beginning of a golden age. Brulan has grown and expanded hugely over the centuries as the seat of power for the Republic.
The government of the Aukarian Republic is founded upon the teachings of a document known the Vejad Plenarum. This one document has shaped not only the Aukarian Republic but also a great deal of its culture. The government is a democratic aristocracy. The population is divided up into "noble houses" and many citizens are a member of a household. There are currently more than 14,000 individual houses.
All government decisions and matters of public concern are voted on in the Senate. Various committees and subcommittees within the Senate focus on specialized segments of the law. Each house has one representative in the Senate and gets one vote. The Senate meets once each week for a day long session. During this session, votes are taking, speeches are made and cases are heard. The proceedings are run by the Speaker of the Senate, a senator who has renounced his house affiliation in the name of impartiality, who adheres the Senate to protocol and ritual.
Each noble house has a rank. The ranking consists of five tiers. The first tier houses are the most powerful while the fifth tier houses are the weakest. The lower the number of the tier, the "higher" the house is considered. A first tier house is "higher" in the pecking order than a third tier house. Being a higher tier house carries with it a great deal of social blessings and government support. In business contracts, a higher tier house always has the upper hand when dealing with a lower tier house. The higher a house's standing, the better seating it's representative has in the Senate.
Massive oval shaped building, seven stories high. Central Senate chamber is the largest single room in all of Aukaria. Holds 500 senators plus 500 administrative assistants, spectators, staff and other people. Total of 1000 people capacity.
The laws of the Republic are interpreted and enforced by a series of courts run by the Guild of Judges that run a number of courts. In the capital city of Brulan, there is one court responsible for each city district. Each court has a list of all houses within its district. Wizards and other spell casters are expected to register with one of the courts. In this way, the Aukarians hope to prevent any single gifted mage from acquiring too much power too quickly as the Sorcerer King once did.
The Senate Court, in Brulan, is the highest court in the Republic and consists of thirteen Judges (all retired Senators). These thirteen men sit in on all Senate sessions. They mete out awards and punishments to the noble houses. They also rule in cases involving serious crimes, interpret Senate law and establish policy. Senate Court magistrates have renounced the House ties, to ensure impartiality.
Punishment for "low crimes" is typically fines, assigned labor for the public good or time spent in a pillory. Those offenses deemed as "high crimes" may warrant imprisonment, hefty fines, confiscation of property or banishment. Execution is reserved for only the most heinous crimes.
The main headquarters of the Brulan city guard is actually a massive hulking stone citadel which forms the East Gate of the city. The East Gate literally runs through this Citadel. Therefore, the East Gate is very heavily guarded. This fortified building houses some 250 officers and 1500 common city guards who patrol the city.
The city patrol consists of seven guards (five common guards, one captain and a city-employed mage). The city guard also has a dozen War Lords at its disposal. They are only called out when a serious problem occurs which is more than two patrols can handle.
The dominant religion of Brulan is Vejadism. There is no god at the center of Vejadism. It is more like a set of philosophies. Because of this, priests of the Vejadic disciplines are part historian, part scholar and part philosopher. Many of these priests were at one time Heralds or students of the Heraldic Order who decided to choose a more spiritual path. These men and women gather at the Tower of Vejad.
The Tower of Vejad
The Tower of Vejad is the center of the Vejadic faith. This central building serves as museum, library, archive and school for the priests and disciples that study the teachings of Vejad. The original Vejad Plenarum, the most sacred document of the faith, is kept in this hall. The building itself is a tall stone keep, twelve stories high, with numerous balconies and towers.
The Aukarian Republic is tolerant of other faiths. Small shrines to all of the other regional faiths including the Chaddamar, Vadalahaj, Vaullian Mysticism, Aerism, Guelrilath, Trodule, Bromat and Olgrom can be found throughout the city.
The Main Market Square
Shaped like an enormous pentagram and bordered by five different main streets. This is an enormous raised stone platform 275 meters (902 ft) on a side. It sits about 2 meters (6.5 feet) higher than the surrounding city. Ten sets of stairs led up to the platform, two in each face of the pentagram.
The City Library
Ruled over by House Kiesuth. This enormous building has two towers. The first holds public records, general books and such. The second holds texts which are limited to the nobles, chamberlains and house wizards of the land. This includes information on all noble houses, the history of the Sorcerer King, current military information, certain magical texts (which are deemed too dangerous to allow public access to).
The Arcane Academy
The Arcane Academy is the "official" institute of spellcraft and magical study in Aukaria. This enormous domed building is an easily reconized landmark. It has three massive domes - a large central dome and two smaller outer domes. All are covered in gold leaf and shine brilliantly in the sun. They cap a magnificent building crafted of pale grey stone blocks. The building appears to almost glow with a soft golden light when the afternoon sun strikes it. This building employs 120 instructors and schools some 800 gifted young men and women each year. After 10 years of study, the graduates are able to find employment as House Wizards, with the Council of Arcane Law or some other honorable wizardly profession. Only about 1 in 10 students ever completes the curriculum and so the Academy only graduates about 80 students each year.
The Council of Arcane Law
The Council of Arcane Law is charged with regulating magical training. The Council monitors who is allowed to train in the magical arts, what enchanted objects are created, what new spells can be researched and things of that nature. The Council's primary duty is to control all magic within the Aukarian Republic and make sure that no Aukarian mage ever is allowed to amass power and become a power hungry dictator. Aukaria can not afford another Sorcerer King.
The Heraldric Order
The Hall of Heralds is the main hall of the Heraldic Order - the official organization of Aukarian Heralds. This institutions provides the necessary training for young men and women to achieve the status of Herald and vie for one of those coveted positions. Those who fail to become Heralds often continue their studies and pursue other artistic pursuits. The Hall of Heralds produces large numbers of talented artists, writers, singers, sculptors and more each year. Not everyone can be a Herald. The Hall of Heralds also takes on students of the wealthy and will educate them in the fine arts - heraldry, history, philosophy, oration, etc - for a price.
The War School of T'prang
Founded by the legendary warlord T'prang, this great war school is government funded. Thousands of young men attend every year as the first step in their career as soldiers. The promising few become officers. Only the very finest warriors achieve the status of Warlord and they are in high demand by the noble Houses.
Salus Feshar, Speaker of the Senate
The primary political figurehead of the Senate and the noble lord of the most powerful first tier house, House Traelon. Lord Feshar is a heavy set man of advanced years and a sturdy frame. He has a trimmed grey beard, wavy grey hair that flows over his shoulders and a stern gaze from grey eyes. He has a powerful presence and a stern expression of resoluteness. He wears only the finest garments. He always is found with a luxurious cloak of black fur over his shoulders and a sceptre of wrought pure silver.
Supreme Warlord Wutar Hashon
An impossibly arrogant man, Wutar Hashon was formerly the Warlord of House Traelon. He has since assumed the role of Supreme Warlord, the Chief Commander of all Republic Armies. He leads the Aukarian War Knights himself and is usually seen calmly ordering his officers from atop his steed. He has an icy cold demeanor and uses brutal tactics in warfare. He has made it his personal mission to do defeat the Sorcerer King Lothiramar and his minions in the Kalanos Marshes.
Xilanus Maer, Court Advisor and Spiritual Leader
Xilanus Maer is a tall, thin man with a shaven head. He is soft-spoken, has a gentle manner and often speaks enigmatically. Lord Maer is something of a philosophical advisor to the Senate and considered the Republic's leading authority on the Vejad Plenarum. He is symbolically the leader of all Heralds in the Republic.
Supreme authority on all magical matters within the Aukarian Republic. He is the ruler of the Arcane Society/Court of Arcane Law and advisor to the Senate. He also teaches at the Arcane Academy.
Considered by many to the greatest warrior in the Aukarian Republic. He is the House Warlord for the third most powerful House in the Republic. He also teaches at the Warlord Academy.
Alov Hamond, Lord Admiral of the Republic Navy
Supreme military commander of all naval forces.
Chief Magistrate Arilath
Arilath is the supreme legal officer of the Republic and the highest ranking member of the Senate Court. In his position, he leads the magistrates in settling disputes between Houses, interprets the laws of the Vejad Plenarum and conduct various political ceremonies. Like the other Senate Court magistrates, Arilath belongs to no single house to ensure impartiality. His office is considered above the Houses.
Just as the nation is divided up into noble houses, so are the people ranked in a system of castes. The concept of social castes is extremely complex and central to the Aukarian Republic. It influences every facet of daily life.
Aukarians have a reputation for honesty. While some Aukarians and houses might use deceit, most Aukarians value honesty above all else. It's a part of their honor. Business transactions are often conducted and sealed with nothing more than a handshake. Paperwork is a formality and is only used to put the details in a fixed format. A signature is a formality. A man's oath is sacred. A noble house would rather sacrifice wealth and people rather than exhibit even the smallest hint of dishonesty. In Aukaria, the rank of a house is, in theory, dependant only on the honor of the household. In theory, a first tier house could be very poor. As long as they had their honor, their wealth is inconsequential. In practice, however, all of the first tier houses are very wealthy.
Aukarian haughtiness is reserved for "outsiders". Usually, once you've been accepted, you're in and are treated decently. The Aukarians have established trade relations with both Magrakor, Vaul and Chaddamar. Therefore, it's not uncommon to find peoples of those nations in Aukaria working with the noble houses, in many cases, as members of the household.
Aukarians tend to be very neat and organized. This extends to their culinary and eating habits as well. The dining table is a formal setting where every utensil and bowl has a proper place. Each diner has a bowl filled with scented water for washing the fingers between meals. They typically have 3 to 5 heated, moistened towels as well. Every separate food item is eaten from a separate bowl. The aukarians wash their fingers and hands and mouths before and after each course of a meal. The wealthier the family, the more elaborate the ceremony. A wealthy aukarian family is likely to have servants bring fresh moistened towels and fresh scented water bowls for each course of the meal. The magrakians find all this a ridiculous waste of time, but will typically put up with it so as to not offend the aukarians whenever they dine together.
Aukarian dinner hosts will serve far too much food to their guests. It is a subtle, and time-honored, way to proclaim your House wealth. The second to last dish is plain boiled rice. It is tradition to refuse this dish, claiming you are full. To eat it is to suggest that your host has left you still hungry. It is a huge insult. The last course is dessert - sweet, but usually very small portions.
The most popular beverage in Aukaria is a sweet wine made from fermented dates. This dark, thick liquid is known as saris. It comes in a wide spectrum of quality. Another popular drink here is cream ale - a white, creamy beer made from the rare hop (from the autavilus plant) found only in the Aukarian Republic. It is typically served warm in heated iron flagons. Both saris and cream ale are exported.
Aukarians go to great lengths to keep their heads lower than those of higher social caste. This is a sign of respect. It's not always possible to do this because of differences in height, but it is the effort that counts. Meeting the gaze and staring at a higher caste is also discouraged. Occasional glances are considered friendly, but to meet the gaze steadily is to challenge authority.
It is tradition to politely turn down a dinner invitation three times and then accept on the fourth. This is considered polite. To accept earlier makes one seem eager or greedy. Also it is proper to bring a gift when invited to a noble house for dinner. When visiting a noble house as a guest for the first time, it is tradition to have a short speech prepared. Typically, this speech praises the host and his household.
Brulan is divided up into nine districts. Each district has a District Court which serves as a central governmental body. Each District Court also houses all information about the Noble Houses within the city.
|Noble District||Senate and government buildings, museums, libraries, monuments and statues.|
|High District||Religious and academic buildings. Houses the University, temples, etc.|
|Northlands District||A wealthy district and home to many second and first tier houses.|
|Southlands District||Artists, scholars, libraries, museums, apothecaries, wizard shops, the Arcane Academy|
|Sword District||Military barracks, guard towers, armories and training grounds.|
|Merchant District||The main market square, most merchant shops, most guilds, a number of inns and taverns.|
|Gate District||Houses the city main gate and the main tower of the City Guard.|
|River District||Houses a large portion of the common population. A number of water mills on the river grind grain.|
|Harbor District||Harbor, ships, coast, warehouses. Houses a large portion of the common population.|
|Outer City||A shanty town outside of the city walls. Home to the very poor. Beggars, thieves, houseless commoners, etc.|
Some would say that the Aukarians are obsessed with ritual and protocol. This extends to their approach to history as well. The city of Brulan dozens of statues and monuments... seemingly a monument for every major event in its history. The most important monument in the city is the Heraldy Wall.
The Heraldry Wall
A massive stone wall near the center of town. The Heraldry Wall is decorated with thousands of silver and gold plaques. Each plaque bears the heraldry of a Noble House. All first through fourth tier houses are represented on the Heraldry Wall. First tier houses have larger plagues fashioned of silver and gold which bear detailed information about the house. Fourth tier plaques are of copper and bear only the House name, location and heraldry. Fifth tier houses are not so honored with a plaque on the Wall.
Statue of Vejad
A 12 meter (40 foot) tall copper and iron stature which depicts a short, plump Aukarian man. The heavy set, balding man holds a scroll and a lantern.
Statue of the Sorcerer-King
A 50 foot tall statue carved from granite. The statue depicts a tall, gaunt man wizened with age. The figure has long wispy hair and a hawkish nose. He is dressed in robes and armor. A great crown sits upon his head. A staff is clutched in one hand. This statue was erected during the reign of the Sorcerer-King. After he was overthrown, the statue was kept by the Republic as a reminder of the long years of his terrible oppression. So as to not stand higher than Vejad, a great square stepped pit was created and the Statue of the Sorcerer King was lowered by several meters. A stone rail surrounds it.
The East Gate
The main gates of Brulan are impressive. The gates are a pair of very decorative, solid bronze doors that are 20 meters (65 feet) tall. They are opened every day at sunrise and close every day at sunset.
Because of the Aukarian tendency toward organizatin and community, the criminal underworld tends to group itself into large and organized cartels. The Underworld of Aukaria is ruled by three separate guilds. These three guilds span the entire nation and have agents and guild houses in many towns. These three organizations are direct competitors to each other. Because they use the same resources and prey upon the same cities, a bitter rivalry has flared up between these three guilds. Members of these guilds clash frequently in back alleys, sewers and on rooftops.
The Seven Sabres
Ruled by seven master thieves... seven guild masters. The Seven Sabres is the largest and most powerful thieves guild in the Republic. Mostly specializes in stealing and fencing stolen goods. The Seven Sabres deal in various blackmarket goods, including rare treasures from distant lands and even the occasional artifact from the Desolation of Shidar. This guild also has network of informants, spies, fences and smugglers. Maintains and profits from several gambling halls throughout Aukaria. The Seven Sabres is primarily motivated by profit.
The Order of the Black Rose
The Order of the Black Rose is a guild of assassins. This guild has many members which count themselves among the mystical tardem. In fact, this guild trains and equips the tardem. This guild uses poisons, specializes in revenge, information gathering, framing people, etc. Very dishonorable and despicable acts. Law abiding citizens hear terrible tales about the Order of the Black Rose. There are even some underworld criminals who want nothing to do with this organization.
The Shades (The Night Spirits)
A ruthless and secretive guild of thieves, assassins and bandits. Ruled by a mysterious figure that goes by the name Malurikus who is never seen and holds council only with his most trusted lieutenants.. Malurikus is, in fact, a lesser demon. One that was summoned centuries ago by the Sorcerer King, and, was subsequently freed when the Sorcerer King was overthrown. Rather than being banished, he was stranded on this plane. Over the centuries, he has used his magical abilities and special skills to obtain a position of power and influence in the underworld of Brulan and Aukaria. Malurikus remembers his long years of enslavement to the Sorcerer King and has gone to great lengths to hide his presence from his former master. Malurikus is currently plotting his revenge against the Sorcerer King and hopes to usurp his position of power in the Kalanos Marshes.
Besides these three guilds, there are numerous small thieving groups and individual rogue thieves that swear allegiance to no one. But most thieves in Aukarian swear allegiance to one of the three main guilds.
|Name and Proprietor||Description|
|Black Swan Public House
|Tavern/Inn - The Black Swan tavern is said to be the oldest establishment in Brulan. This huge three story inn resides in the Merchant District. The Black Swan is owned by House Marsdon, a third tier house. It is run by Guerok, his family and a staff of seven. On the top floor is a large private room with a bathrub so that guests may have a proper bath, for a few extra coins.|
|The Greedy Hyttar
|Gambling Hall/Tavern - Run by an overweight man named Lejano who employs twelve hyttar refugees. Although this tavern is small and filled with cutthroats and brigands, it has good food and reasonable prices.|
Forest Public House
|Tavern/Inn - Run by fourth tier House Valkris. Most likely gets its name from the huge black logs from which this building is constructed.|
|The Pilfered Blade Public
|Tavern/Inn/Gambling Hall - The Pilfered Blade is a smoky tavern that caters to a seedy clientele. Bleary eyed patrons peer up from their card games whenever someone new enters. It is four stories tall and built around a huge central gambling hall. It has some 18 rooms for rent and two large common rooms. It also has private chambers in the back for a price where one can indulge in a courtesan, a quiet meal or a private conversation away from prying eyes. The Pilfered Blade is home to House Isaldor, a struggling fifth tier house. All 22 members of the Isaldor family live on the fourth floor. Most of the staff and servants are of Isaldor blood or have become part of the House.|
|Name and Proprietor||Description|
|The Grape and Grain
|Wine and Food Shop - Owned and operated by the fourth tier House Kahler. This is essentially a food specialty shoppe. It is run as a bakery and brewery. The family label wine, imported from the Kahler vineyards outside of town, are sold here. Caters to the well-to-do.|
|Norran's Fish Market
|Fish Shop - This shop sells fish, seafood, salt, specialty sauces, spices, seaweed, herbs and more. It is run by Norran, his wife, his five sons and his two daughters. Also, Norran's brother Gwigoder and their father, Laurton. The sons are all fishermen, like their father. The daughters and mother make sauces and prepare spices. The father, Norran, also prepares the poisonous delicacy, the emerald prattle fish. the Norran family and their small shop are essentially all that is left of the fifth tier House Ooblan. The story of this house's fall from grace is still spoken of in hushed tones at nearby taverns.|
| Galloping Goose
|Wizard's Shop - Named after his familiar, an enormous white goose which has a bad temper and chases customers on occasion. Araloth is a wizard in good standing, registered with the Council of Arcane Law. Having graduated and studied, he now runs this small shoppe and brings honor to his house. The Galloping Goose is a well stocked little magic shoppe. All manner of spell components, herbs, roots, potion ingredients and the like can be purchased here. He sells parchment, paper, ink, blank books, leather satchel, scroll tubes, candles and the like. Everything a traveling mage or hedge wizard would need. Araloth is friends with several other local mages in town and they have formed a small "wizards club".|
|The Gold Dragon's Hoard
Gardod, Agramon, Celia and Myssa
|Trading Post - Founded by a four retired adventurers. Two men and two women. Rumors state that they did indeed purchase this establishment with gold they obtained from a dragon's hoard. Some say they raided the hoard while the dragon was away. If asked, however, they will regale their customers about battling a drake in a far off land. Of course, the details change slightly with every retelling. This shoppe is a general store in which almost anything can be purchased, sold or traded. It is a large, well built four story structure with dozens of rooms. They employ a staff of eight plus four guards who keep alert for thieves.|
|Blacksmith/Armorer - Imok is a half magrakian with a half dozen scars earned from a career as a warriorsmith. He was a traveling smith with the magrakian military for many years. Retired now, he specializes in forging heavy plate armor. He presides over fifteen apprentice armor smiths.|
|Scrolls of Korbun
|Library/Sage/Scribe - To his fellow countrymen, Korbun's services are expensive, but excellent. If this self-proclaimed "Wisest Man in Brulan" does not completely live up to the title, he comes very close. His knowledge of the geographic features, fauna and flora of northern Aggradar is second to none. However, as is typical of some Aukarian service providers, he charges all foreigners over twice his normal fee.|
|Burkir's Garden Hall
|Apothecary - Impressive selection of natural herbs and medicinal elixirs. Only open to those of Aukarian blood. However, Jeskar, the young apprentice, will occasionally secret away a bit of inventory to sell to Magrakian traders and pocket the profits.|
|Leather Goods Store - Run by a mixed-blood native. Half Padashan, half Aukarian. Hamatt was once a wandering craftsmen, but an injury forced him to settle down in Brulan. He has taken a wife and has two young children.|
|Swordsmith - Specializes in short bladed weapons. Hulkar's daggers and traditional Aukarian blades are sought throughout the country.|
|The Seven Pillars
|Social Club - A fancy private social club, the largest of its kind in Brulan. This huge building resembles a palatial estate with courtyards, terraced gardens and balconies. It consists of four main buildings on a small campus within an enclosing stone wall. Only members are allowed inside the gates and membership is reserved for the wealthy. The monthly dues for membership are more than most commoners earn in a year. The Seven Pillars has four large swimming pools, seven bathhouses and three saunas. It has conference rooms, parlors, dining rooms, private sleeping chambers, gaming rooms and an indoor archery range. It is the playground for many wealthy Aukarian nobles. It is run by second tier House Prelain. Some 40 ilesan (high class escorts) are employed here.|
|Metal Workshop - Pottery, beaten metal pots, buckles, knives, and other tools. The smithy, Hauke, missed his calling as a town cryer. People from city blocks away can hear his characteristic yelling at passersby to come see his wares.|
|Brewery/Bakery - This combination establishment grinds its own grain and makes beer and bread from them. As the proprietor always says, "The most important thing in life is beer and bread. What else do you need?"|
|Garment Shop - A large shop with a spectacular selection of clothing, cloaks, boots and paste jewelry. This shop specializes in festival costumes during certain times of the year. Also has wigs, perfumes, makeup, dyes. In a secret back room, the shop also has disguise kits, thieves tools, poisons, light armor, genuine jewelry and small conceilable weapons. Run by a thin, slightly built man with a soft voice and soft demeaner. Painfully shy, but a genuinably likeable fellow when you get him to open up.|
This website was last updated October 5, 2021. Copyright 1990-2021 David M. Roomes.